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The high index of refraction and dispersion properties of its oxide's have made germanium useful as a component of wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives. 1.T = 300 K; 2.T = 77 K. (Babich et al. Find physical and chemical properties of Germanium (Ge) like element name, symbol, atomic number, atomic weight, density, color, melting point, boiling point, physical state at room temperature, isotopes, compounds, half life period, category, year of discovery and more People use it as medicine. The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species GeGe is 263.6 ±7.1 kJ mol-1.. Germanium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species. Germanium as Semiconductor 12 grams polycrystalline germanium. Accurate electronic and optical properties of hexagonal germanium for optoelectronic applications Claudia Rödl, Jürgen Furthmüller, Jens Renè Suckert, Valerio Armuzza, Friedhelm Bechstedt, and Silvana Botti Phys. It has a bright, shiny, silvery color. Germanium dioxide is used mainly as a catalyst in the production of polyester and synthetic textile fiber. Rev. Vickers Hardness: converted from Mohs scale Up to date, curated data provided by Mathematica's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc. Compare elements on more than 90 properties. 1)High purity germanium is obtained during zone refining. Metalloids are intermediate between metals and nonmetals. The model for diamond, which has not previously been published, shows marked differences in the dis- persion curves between this material and the other three and these give rise to characteristic differences in the physical properties. The number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2. Germanium has a diamond-like crystalline structure which is hard, lustrous, gray-white, and brittle. The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. Source: wikipedia.org License: CC BY 3.0. Silicon and germanium can be made by reduction of their dioxides by carbon or calcium carbide in an electric furnace, and then purified further by zone-refining. Source: wikipedia.org License: CC BY 3.0. Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. Germanium Wafer Process . Germanium and … Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. [1969]). This element has atomic number of 32 and atomic weight of 72.60. Comprehensive information for the element Germanium - Ge is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and … Germanium is grouped as the metalloid element which means that this carbon group element possesses both metallic and non-metallic chemical element properties. Germanium is a mineral found in the soil, in foods and many healing herbs such as Aloe Vera, garlic and ginseng. Key Properties. Germanium is a chemical element. Germanium nanoparticles have excited scientists and engineers because of their size-dependent optical properties and their potential applications in optoelectronics, biological imaging and therapeutics, flash memories, and lithium-ion batteries. Germanium has the following properties: 12 grams polycrystalline germanium. In pure form, the element is a grayish-white metalloid. Kelin Kuhn, in High Mobility Materials for CMOS Applications, 2018. In order to further develop these applications and to gain deep Chemistry of functional nanomaterials It has a melting point of 937.4°C (1,719°F) and a boiling point of 2,830°C (5,130°F). Electrical Properties Basic Parameters of Electrical Properties Mobility and Hall Effect Transport Properties in High Electric Fields Impact Ionization Recombination Parameters Optical properties Thermal properties Mechanical properties, elastic constants, lattice vibrations Basic Parameters Elastic Constants Acoustic Wave Speeds Germanium is a chemical element with atomic number 32 which means there are 32 Resistivity versus impurity concentration., T = 300 K. (Cuttris [1981]). Germanium Properties. The lattice constant of germanium is 0.565 79 nm, 4.18% larger than that of silicon, but it near perfectly matches that of III–V compound semiconductor GaAs. Some people use germanium for osteoarthritis, … Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide, germania, and salt of germanium, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ge O 2. Overview Information Germanium is a chemical element. Germanium is a chemical element which is placed in the 14th group and 4 th period in the periodic table. Germanium is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element. Electrical Properties of Germanium and Silicon August 7, 2019 August 4, 2019 pani In this article we will discuss different electrical properties of germanium and silicon like conductivity, drift current, concentration forbidden energy gap and mobility. PROPERTIES OF METAL TO GERMANIUM CONTACTS 1021 Finally, it is gratifyingly repeatable ; contacts produced ender the same set of circum- stances give the same set of rectification curves Within narrow tolerances. But it is brittle and breaks apart rather easily, which metals normally do not do. The image above is a virtual representation of germanium metal calculated by Patrick Callet using the complex diectric function of the element only. Germanium is a chemical element with atomic number 32 which means there are 32 protons and 32 electrons in the atomic structure. Velocity of sound: 5400 m s ‑1 Tin and Lead are obtained by carbon reduction of their oxides or sulphides. The electron Hall factor versus donor density. 1.2.4.2.1 Germanium-Based Materials. Symbol of the germanium element is Ge. Despite serious safety concerns, germanium is used for heart and blood vessel conditions, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease; for eye conditions, including glaucoma and cataracts; and for liver conditions, including hepatitis and cirrhosis.. The chemical symbol for Germanium is Ge. It conducts an electric current poorly. In some cases, germanium can even cause chronic kidney failure and death. The key properties of Germanium are: It is a Gray-white brittle metal, is bright, shiny and silvery in color Is brittle and breaks apart easily unlike other metals It … Reflectivity: (no data) % Refractive index: (no data) (no units) Acoustic properties. Chemical Properties. Isolation and Properties of the Elements. People use it as medicine. Properties: Germanium has a melting point of 937.4 C, boiling point of 2830 C, specific gravity of 5.323 (25 C), with valences of 2 and 4. It is a hard, grayish-white element; it has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond; and it is brittle, like glass.In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. Germanium: structure and properties Germanium, similar to its group neighbor silicon, is an elemental semiconductor in group IV. As germanium is a metalloid, it shows some properties of metals and nonmetals as well. Notable characteristics . Germanium (Ge) was the first transistor material, dominating the industry from 1947 to the early 1960s. Silicon-germanium is an important material that is used for the fabrication of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and strained Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS ) transistors for advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS ) and BiCMOS (bipolar CMOS) technologies.It also has interesting optical properties that are increasingly being applied in silicon … Temperature dependences of hole mobility for different doping levels. It is a metalloid with the atomic number 32. It is the main commercial source of germanium. It is known to be stable in air and water, and is not affected by alkalis and acids with the exception of nitric acid. It also forms as a passivation layer on pure germanium in contact with atmospheric oxygen. All the elements of similar categories show a lot of similarities and differences in their chemical, atomic, physical properties and uses. The germanium atom has a radius of 122.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 211.pm. Germanium can break down your kidney tissue, causing kidney damage. 2)A germanium crystal is produced via the Czochralski process. Notes on the properties of Germanium: Brinell Hardness: converted from Mohs scale Specific Heat: Value given for solid phase. The chemical properties of germanium are … It is crystalline and brittle and retains its luster in air. In the germanium wafer production process, germanium dioxide from the residue processing is further purified in chlorination and hydrolysis steps. The models for all four PROPERTIES OF DIAMOND, SILICON and GERMANIUM Author - d.w.palmer@semiconductors.co.uk When quoting data from here, please state the reference as D … Abstract. germanium, silicon, diamond and gallium arsenide. Germanium chloride (GeCl 4) and germanium fluoride (GeF 4) can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, lungs and throat. Germanium is solid, shiny chemical element with the symbol Ge. Optical properties. In 2010, the world’s total production of germanium was between 100 and 120 t. This comprised germanium recovered from zinc concentrates, fly ash from burning coal, and recycled material. Materials 3, 034602 – Published 11 March 2019 It is known to initiate healthy oxygen flow in the body tissues and aids in the normal functioning of the immune cells. It is also known to maintain a healthy balance between various body functions and is a water-soluble dietary supplement. Germanium is a hard, grayish-white element that has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond.In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator.In its pure state, this metalloid is crystalline, brittle and retains its lustre in air at room temperature. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. 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